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- The term "Hatteras" refers both to Hatteras Island itself, which is the long barrier island that stretches from Oregon Inlet to Hatteras Inlet, and Hatteras Village, which is the southernmost community on the island.
- Hatteras Island is 50 miles long and about 3.5 miles wide at most at its widest point in Buxton.
- There are seven villages scattered throughout the island, which are Rodanthe, Waves, Salvo, Avon, Buxton, Frisco and Hatteras Village.
- The year-round population is approximately 3,000-4,000, with the majority of locals living in the more residential communities of Buxton and Frisco. In the summertime, this number skyrockets to 50,000 visitors or more every week.
- Hatteras Island is part of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, and more than half of the island is comprised of undeveloped, natural terrain.
- The island is bordered to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and to the west by the Pamlico Sound. This means that the island is, at some points, approximately 30 miles away from the mainland.
- The island is also cut off from the rest of the Outer Banks' barrier islands by Oregon Inlet to the north, and Hatteras Inlet to the south.
- The notorious Diamond Shoals are located just offshore of Hatteras Island. These shifting sandbars have caused hundreds of shipwrecks over the past five centuries.
- To access Hatteras Island, visitors will need to cross over Oregon Inlet via the Herbert C. Bonner Bridge, or take the free Ocracoke / Hatteras ferry across Hatteras Inlet.
- The National Park Service estimates that more than 2 million vehicles cross the Herbert C. Bonner Bridge every year.
- In 2011, a new inlet also opened up on the island, which is located in between the Herbert C. Bonner Bridge and Rodanthe. This inlet has been named "Irene's Inlet" by locals.
- Hatteras Island is home to the 208' foot tall Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, the tallest brick lighthouse in the world.
- Hatteras Island is also home to several refuges, including the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge north of Rodanthe, and the Buxton Woods Coastal Reserve in Buxton and Frisco.
- The island "hooks" and veers back towards the mainland at Cape Point in Buxton. Cape Point is subsequently known as one of the top surf fishing destinations on the East Coast.
- Hatteras Island is also famous for kiteboarding and windsurfing, and thousands of American and Canadian visitors come to the island every year to enjoy these wind-based sports.
- There are no alligators in the sound, however there are legendary, and rarely seen, alligators in Buxton Woods.
- There are also more than 350 species of birds on Hatteras Island, which are typically concentrated along the 13-mile-long Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, just north of Rodanthe.